Codifying Islamic medical ethics is a complex undertaking. To ensure we do this accurately and fairly, we have a transparent research methodology in place to guide the process of information retrieval and ensure the reader’s confidence. The methodology is based on three tiers.

Tier 1

Information is first sought from official Fiqh councils and Muslim medical organisations. These are forums where Muslim scholars discuss the issues with experts, and come to conclusions. This includes but is not restricted to the following bodies, in no particular order:

Tier 2

If information cannot be found at tier 1, then we will explore the works and legal rulings of individual scholars. This includes:

  • Websites:;; and others.
  • Literature:
    • Manuals of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence (e.g. Reliance of the Traveller, al-Hidaayah)
    • Research literature published in medical research databases (e.g. PubMed)
    • Any material recommended by our Council members
    • Citations or references written in the reference/bibliography page of any of the above sources

Tier 3

If information cannot be found on the second tier, then the issue will be referred to the Islamic Medical Ethics Council. Please note that the Moral Code project is open to the inclusion of any resource recommended by our Council, or encountered in the course of our research, that is deemed to be reliable and accurate